The provisions were intended to make the Reichswehr incapable of offensive action and to encourage international disarmament. Modern Germany: Its History and Civilization 13th printing ed. Senate never ratified the Treaty of Versailles, the United States signed separate treaties with Germany in 1921 and 1922 that enabled the United States to help Germany rebuild as a nation apart from the strict supervision of the League of Nations. But in many ways, the United States benefited a great deal from the war. He believed that the League of Nations, which was added to the various treaties ending the war, would redeem the failures of the Paris Peace Conference. Wilson further reduced the garrison to 6,500 men, prior to the inauguration of in 1921.
Belgium maintained an occupation force of roughly 10,000 troops throughout the initial years. Refers to efforts by Republican isolationists to block ratification of Treaty of Versailles establishing the. Initially, 70 delegates from 27 nations participated in the negotiations. The voted in favour of signing the treaty by 237 to 138, with five abstentions there were 421 delegates in total. Eastern Pomerania , on historical and ethnic grounds, was transferred to Poland so that the new state could have access to the sea and became known as the. The Germans had little choice but to accept to the treaty.
Germany was to demobilize sufficient soldiers by 31 March 1920 to leave an army of no more than 100,000 men in a maximum of seven infantry and three cavalry divisions. This treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles 3,400,000 km 2 of territory and 62 million people. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions. New York: Cambridge University Press. The largest bloc, led by Senator Lodge, comprised a majority of the Republicans.
On November 19, 1919, a group of Democratic senators joined the Irreconcilables to defeat the treaty. The Democrats on the Bipartisan Committee on January 27, offered the Hitchcock reservation to Article 10 but it was opposed by the Republicans. Following the implementation of the treaty, Upper Silesia was initially governed by Britain, France, and Italy. Fighting would rage across , the , and for the next four years. Ewa Thompson points out that the treaty allowed numerous nations in and Eastern Europe to liberate themselves from oppressive German rule, a fact that is often neglected by Western historiography, more interested in understanding the German point of view. The German was mainly restricted to the and used and for a counter-blockade. Finally, Evans argued that it is untrue that Versailles caused the premature end of the Republic, instead contending that it was the of the early 1930s that put an end to German democracy.
It then rejected Wilson's original Treaty 38-53. As tough as these provisions were the harshest was Article 231. That debate has continued for generations without resolution. It was at this critical juncture that President Wilson collapses in Pueblo, Colorado on September 25 after delivering the speech quoted above. The Schlieffen Plan is the plan developed by Germany when forced to fight in a two front war. The Blockade of Germany 1914—1919 was a conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers.
Furthermore, payments made between 1919 and 1921 were taken into account reducing the sum to 41 billion gold marks. Many Americans came to feel that they had been rushed into the War. This may have biased the legislature against the treaty, but the main reason the U. When a treaty is submitted to the Senate for approval, the Senate has several options for action. Military schools for officer training were limited to three, one school per arm, and conscription was abolished.
Besides the Irreconcilables, a second group of Republicans called the Reservationists, led by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, declared they would support the treaty if certain alterations were made. Soon after, the was signed in Berlin on 25 August 1921, the was signed in Vienna on 24 August 1921, and the was signed in Budapest on 29 August 1921. One of the principal concerns of Germans were the territorial concessions and most of these were based upon the right to national self determination which was part of the 14 Points. On the distaff side of the treaty, it also called for the right of self-determination of sovereign states and for the creation of a world body that would serve as the guarantor and protector of world peace. Had their been a more benevolent peace based on Wilson's 14 Points the Weimar Republic might have mustered the strength to successfully fight the post-War economic and social turmoil.
In June 1919, the Allies declared that war would resume if the German government did not sign the treaty they had agreed to among themselves. World War I demonstrated the magnitude and destructive power of modern warfare. We will write a custom sample essay on Why did the United States Reject the Treaty of Versailles? In response, the Allies issued an ultimatum stating that Germany would have to accept the treaty or face an invasion of Allied forces across the Rhine within 24 hours. To create new boundaries is to create new troubles. He knew what he wanted and thought that having to accomodate Republicans would complicate the negotiations.