George Frederickson is widely recognized as the originator of the concept and the person most associated with its development and application. The tension between merit or quality on one hand and fairness or equity on the other, applied in some depth in the field of public education in chapter 8, is taken up in a different way in chapter 9. Public education is an excellent topic to consider if one wishes to explore the tensions between educational quality on one hand and educational equality on the other. Men must overcome their institutions by a new consciousness, the release of emotional strength, and the development of new structures that permit openness, honesty, and authenticity-human relations. The third aspect to advancing social equity is best illustrated by a story. George Frederickson is widely recognized as the originator of the concept and the person most associated with its development and application.
The result would be, Lowi hopes, a transfer of administrative decision making back to Congress and a diminution of administrative discretion. About this Item: Routledge, 2010. On the other hand, the theoretical language and ideas in Table 2. This pattern of theory and model evolution and devolution may be common in the life, physical, or natural sciences, as Thomas Kuhn 1970 suggests, but I am of the view that it is not common in the social sciences. Citizen participation and neighborhood control appear to result in a pattern of compromise and adjustment whereby managerial definitions of client needs are adjusted to citizen definitions of their needs. Then a young but well-established political scientist commented that causal assertions could not be supported by only one case. The police are enforcing the law.
Progressive public administration programs in the academy will build firm and permanent bridges to the professional schools where most public servants are trained. The reexamination should be conducted under the direction of line executives with the help of inside or outside consultants. Still, the human relations school has provided compelling evidence that under certain conditions shared authority and worker satisfaction are positively correlated with productivity. Finally, equity issues are more likely to be associated with inequitable distribution of costs and benefits than traditional distributional social equity. And a public program could be economical for some citizens but expensive for others.
I shall not deal here with the traditional questions of ethics and responsibility in government; these issues will be examined only from the perspective of social equity and new administration. Not long after that the Ford Foundation funded new public policy analysis graduate programs at several prestigious universities such as Harvard and Berkeley. Indeed, by the late 1990s, a standard text wrote: The ethical and equitable treatment of citizens by administrators is at the forefront of concerns n public agencies. He attempts to use his scientific skills to aid his analysis, experimentation, and evaluation of alternative policies and administrative modes. This change probably spells a different kind of involvement. National Civic Review, 94 4 , 31- 38. The social equity perspective is distinctly in the Friedrich camp.
However, it does suggest that these values may be in competition with the values on which the classic and neobureaucratic models are based. If competition enhances efficiency and economy, does it enhance these values for everyone? Used by permission of Jossey-Bass. The internal competition for money, manpower, status, space, and priorities is a staple in organization theory as any reading of the Administrative Science Quarterly indicates. It concerns itself with the fairness of the organization, its management, and its delivery of public services. New public administration attempts to refocus on the problem and to consider alternative possible institutional approaches to confronting problems.
It is also clear from some of this research that there are trade-offs between the values upon which public administration is built. It is called moral leadership. At the beginning of this chapter, I suggested that the values that guided traditional public administration—efficiency, economy, productivity, rationality—will have a heavy influence on new public administration. New public administration, in its search for changeable structures, tends therefore to experiment with or advocate modified bureaucratic-organizational forms. Used by permission of the American Society for Public Administration. Nevertheless, it is the idea of social equity that matters most.
The final purpose of this chapter is a consideration of the likely impact of new public administration on organization theory particularly and the study of administration generally. The claims for comparable worth systems of pay for women are, interestingly, an example of block egalitarianism mixed with equal pay for equal work, which is segmented equality. So, it was necessary to build the social equity perspective on public administration from scratch. What does new public administration mean for the academy? So, too, will concerns for the responsiveness of complex organizations to the needs of both the individuals working in them and the citizens who are receiving their services. Pages and cover are clean and intact.
These values are ongoing or enduring, but they are often also competitive. Campus buildings were occupied, and some were set on fire; universities were closed; some students were shot and killed; mothers protested daily on the steps of courthouses across the land; and leading journalists and television news anchors spoke openly against the war. The State of Social Equity in Public Administration-- 5. This approach provides two polar alternatives for judges: either they mechanically apply the law as it is written or, when this is impossible, they are free to act on their own personal preferences. For Aristotle, friends are those engaged in the same social practice and who, as a result, know the ins and outs and the risks and benefits of that social practice. And many of us are grateful for that.
It is now clear that considerable progress has been made in thinking about, understanding, and applying various parts of the subject. Schemes for guaranteed annual income, negative income tax, Head Start, Job Corps, and the like could be evaluated in terms of their potential for equity maximization. In the first place, most government services cannot be equally utilized by all citizens, because services are initially designed to serve the needs of a restricted clientele—compulsory education for younger people, for example. Public Administration Review, 1, 335- 350. The four suggested processes are: the distributive process; the integrative process; the boundary-exchange process; and the socioemotional process. The rule-book concept of law holds that the requirements of law are spelled out somewhere in written statutes or case law, and that those requirements, at least in principle, could be brought together in one clearly stated book of rules. .
He also pointed out that I might have a singular sense of the origins and evolution of social equity in public administration, that a collection of my writings on social equity in a single publication might be useful to future teachers and practitioners of public administration, and that I was not getting any younger. If the description is even partially accurate it is patently clear that there are fundamental changes occurring in public administration which have salient implications for both its study and practice as well as for the general conduct of government. While politics was interesting, it was not for me. This condition is morally reprehensible and if left unchanged constitutes a fundamental, if long-range, threat to the viability of this or any political system. Frances Harriet Williams was an unsung social equity pioneer in the field of public administration.