Moreover, due to the cross-sectional, non-experimental nature of many of the studies involved it is unknown whether significant correlations between mentoring and outcomes reflect a causal effect of mentoring. Of course, finding a mentor or mentors isn't always easy. For example, career attitudes have been almost exclusively studied in workplace mentoring. The benefits associated with workplace mentoring relationships. However, these many holes provide many opportunities for useful research and it is possible — with care — to mine the literature for useful indicators that can be tested in well-defined contexts. Applications are accepted in June at the Div. First, with regard to behavioral outcomes, all three types of mentoring demonstrated significant effect sizes for performance.
From middle childhood to adolescence the primary developmental issues involve learning how to cultivate healthy peer relationships, master academic challenges, and develop a sense of personal responsibility ;. Both and found significant relationships between workplace mentoring and career attitudes, work attitudes, and some career outcomes. However, all three types of mentoring shared overlapping confidence intervals. For example, it may be useful to further explore the link between mentoring and helping others since mentoring has been discussed as a form of prosocial behavior. The preceptor has learned perceptual distinctions that may be difficult for the novice to understand or the preceptor to teach. Participants also mentioned creating opportunities, helping mentees identify potential opportunities, and providing introductions as being critical actions of effective mentors.
Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Thus, we expect: Hypothesis 2: Mentoring is associated with positive attitudinal outcomes. This information has implications for theory development and refinement. With regard to attitudinal outcomes, all of the effect sizes were significant. Behavioral outcomes Mentoring is often discussed as a means to increase desirable behavior e. There are also reviews linking youth , academic ; and workplace mentoring to psychological outcomes such as positive self-image, emotional adjustment, and psychological well-being, although similar to our findings, several of these reviews found small effect sizes.
However, we did include participants from both the United States and Canada, making our study unique. Moreover, participants felt that mentees needed to be respectful of the competing demands on their mentors, including meetings with other mentees and their own deadlines. Often individuals who mentor youth or serve as informal mentors within the workplace setting do so on a volunteer basis with little or no training. Valuable information for programs serving higher risk youth is provided. It was an interesting place to work, but my role was of no particular importance.
Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. We concluded that this divergence was at least partially the result of failings in the structure and definition of much of the research. The study of mentoring has generally been conducted within disciplinary silos with a specific type of mentoring relationship as a focus. The acute need for mentors is not a problem that can be solved by nursing alone. The absolute value of the effect sizes associated with youth mentoring ranged from. We also collected participant demographic information, including institutional affiliation, career path, and gender. Spot checking throughout the coding process revealed minimal coding errors.
However, a major goal of academic mentoring is career preparation. Avellar has traveled to conferences where Israel has introduced him to some of her colleagues. Mentors can also facilitate professional networking by introducing protégés to influential individuals within academic and organizational contexts ;. This Web site is funded through a grant from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U. An expert nurse caring for the same patient would complete the same tasks but not be caught up in the technical details. From each department of medicine, we obtained lists of faculty members that outlined their rank, gender, and academic stream.
You have to deliver tremendous value to your mentor as well, and that often means working longer and harder than those around you. Participants also mentioned that effective mentors warn their mentees of potential pitfalls and protect them from harsh interactions. After giving the class a series of instructions on how to play the recorder, each new clinical preceptor is asked to stand in front of the group and play. Several narrative reviews of the youth, academic, and workplace mentoring literature exist. His program assigns more senior students to help first-year students navigate the unfamiliar waters of graduate school.
Within each category we list the specific outcomes examined and examples of how these outcomes were operationalized. Great appreciation is expressed to Carrie Owen, Lauren Fields, Brian Roote, and Kanu Priya for their assistance on this project. Moreover, mentors may help protégés stay focused on tasks and steer them away from superfluous activities. Finally, with regard to motivational involvement, all three types of mentoring shared overlapping confidence intervals. Results from over 70 programs are combined to paint a big-picture summary of the many things that quality mentoring interventions can achieve.
Naval Academy and author of several books about mentoring. Youth mentoring was defined as a naturally occurring informal or formally arranged e. The relation between self-beliefs and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review. Several participants in our study observed or experienced failed mentoring relationships, which have potentially significant consequences. Preceptors help new nurses deal with the uncertainty of the clinical setting that is inherent to gaining proficiency. This leads us to propose: Hypothesis 4: Mentoring is associated with positive relational outcomes.
Mentoring: A promising strategy for youth developmen. Other reviews focus on a specific type of mentoring e. Tactics for a successful mentoring relationship Participants identified several tactics that mentors can use to optimize their mentoring relationships. This review provides a survey of the empirical work on mentoring that is organized around the major questions that have been investigated. Each step builds on the previous one as abstract principles are refined and expanded by experience and the learner gains clinical expertise.