Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. Coli as the colony sizes were near maximum of the standard result. The title can be the most striking or the newest outcome among results obtained. Then explain the main finding as related to the overall purpose of the study.
I imagine the Results section like a dance with swords -- sometimes you are engaging your partner with the pointy end and sometimes you are gliding alongside them. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. It performs well, giving good results. The proceedings begin with a lawyer providing an opening statement telling the jury what he or she plans to present. The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to move backwards in a line of inquiry.
The academic writing should be clear, impartial, and objective. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. At the beginning of your Discussion section, you stated why this particular study was needed to fill the gap you noticed and why that gap needed filling in the first place. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. How much are they different? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. Instead, simply explain the results in language that is easy for a non-researcher to understand.
One of them is to allocate at least 30 minutes a day for writing a manuscript which amounts to 3. The priorly mentioned information which linked the previous sentence should be placed at the beginning of the sentence, while the new information should be located at the end of the sentence. Style: Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The first paragraph provides general background material on the topic, and the last paragraph focuses on the specific question s being asked in the study. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. At the beginning of your paper, you tell us why we should care about your research. Now the writer starts to talk about effects.
In conclusion, academic writing is similar to other skills, and practice makes perfect. This period of time is adequate for completion of a manuscript within a few weeks which can be generally considered as a long time interval. Therefore, enough key information e. The Difficulties of Writing a Discussion Section In an ideal world, you could simply reject your or according to the significance levels found by the statistics. However, needs to link between your work and others and convince the readers that you work to agree or disagree with other work based on good discussion. These data are all the more encouraging in light of extant data, which suggests that attitudes toward mental health use are positively associated with actual service use e. Limitations Some study limitations merit comment.
How should the manuscript be written? How will this study advance our knowledge? So the question posed can be rephrased as follows: How can new authors be helped to base their own styles? Accordingly, the findings of the study are determined in order of their importance, and a paragraph is constructed for each finding. Just a small amount of writing to go from this point. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. Do not forget that none of the manuscripts is perfect, and one should not refrain from writing because of language problems, and related lack of experience. Whereas the can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. Notice how the first sentence provides the empirical support for the recommendation. What are the common mistakes made related to the writing process of a manuscript? What are the common mistakes made in writing the Discussion section? Regardless, a blind administration of the experiment would have been desirable.
You should also indicate the used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance usually at 0. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding if statistical tests are being used in your course. Describe the organism s used in the study. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Experimental process Section of Paper What did I do in a nutshell? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment or theirs? When teachers spend the time necessary for teaching study skills, then students will not be uncertain about ethical study practices and will be more prepared for their exams. If so, how do you interpret your findings? We should also give information about our subject matter.
Three points about the beginning of the Discussion are worth emphasizing here. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. In essence, the methodology to be followed in writing the Discussion section is directly related to the selection of the target journal. What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question s you are posing? On principle, simple, clear and effective language should be used throughout the text. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research.
If you choose to combine the results section and the discussion section into a single narrative, you must be clear in how you report the information discovered and your own interpretation of each finding. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it. Don't Write Two Results Sections! Do not interpret the data here. Invert the Cone In a previous article on the Introduction section of a scientific paper , I discussed how this section could be envisioned as having the shape of a cone or funnel. So, how do you do that? Here we compare the results of the proposed method with those of the traditional methods.
However the suitability of the title to the agenda of the target journal should be investigated beforehand. The result: a fresh look at the Writing a Discussion Section - Interprete the Results - Explorable. In a nutshell, your Discussion fulfills the promise you made to readers in your Introduction. What practical steps can educators take to implement the key findings of the research study? In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. During writing process, this abstract might be a useful guide which prevents deviation from the main objective of the manuscript.