Management in one form or the other has been a significant feature of economic life of mankind throughout ages. This information can be used in a purposeful manner while framing training programmes for jobs. What is Human Resource Development? Lengthy selection procedure is needed for scientific selection of candidates. The best way is to train existing managers through management development programmes. The performance of subordinates may not improve unless additional responsibility and authority are delegated to them.
The components of scientific management are determination of the task, planning, proper selection and training of workers improvement in methods, modification of organization and mental revolution such as 'job specialization'. A personnel manager must be a specialist in organisation theory. . It is a short and informative training given immediately after joining the organisation. Two groups were created, control group and experimental group. Several individuals and experiments contributed to this theory.
The aim of personnel management is to get better results for the Organisation through their involvement, motivation and co-operation. Mary Parker Follet, Elton Mayo and his associates, Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor and Chris Argyris were main players of this school. Whether decision making is centralized to management or decentralized to subordinates is a question of proper proportion. Some of the approaches take only partial view of the area of management and see the managerial problems through coloured glasses. Welfare facilities create efficient and satisfied Labour force.
Videotapes are also available on management training. The classical approach was associated with the ways to manage work and organizations more efficiently. Maintenance of stable manpower is difficult due to the availability of ample employment opportunities. Taylor believed that a methodological and systematic movement of materials ensure fast movement of material in the factory. His ideas on management have been referred as the Administrative Management Theory, which later evolved into the Management Process School. This can be corrected by offering self-development opportunities to managers. Theorists stated that there is not effective way of doing things under all business conditions.
Henri Fayol 1841-1925 is a prominent name in this field; he gave the perspective that planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling are the main functions of the administration. Final selection is possible only when the candidate completes this hurdle race successfully. To do this, they would have to learn to think beyond their narrow self-interest and make an ethical promise to society. Coaching method favours learning by doing. The project relates to specific problem faced by the department.
Behavioural Science: Behavioural science and the study of organizational behaviour emanated during 1950s and1960s. The superior executive also gets the benefit as he can delegate some of his responsibilities to the assistant and also acts as guide of his assistant. These needs include the need for basic security, stability, protection, and freedom from fear. Remuneration to employees should be attractive so that the labour force will be satisfied and disputes, etc. The participants in such conferences and seminars are limited. This approach is still in practice in various organizations; however, the functions are modified slightly.
Koontz and O'Donnell suggested planning, organizing, staffing, directing and control. Mental revolution is also necessary on the part of management's side, the foreman, the superintendent, the owners and board of directions. He considered the perfect organization to be a bureaucracy whose activities and objectives were reasonably thought out and whose divisions of labour were clearly defined. Management development is a way to improving the culture of the Organisation so that it could be geared to excellence. The development of it was gradual and it has passed through various distinct time periods. From the success, that he has achieved in , Taylor's attention moved to other production processes. The case presented is always incomplete.
On the other hand, the Theory Y manager assumes that employees are not only trustworthy and capable of assuming responsibility, but also have high levels of motivation. Knowledge of subjects like philosophy, logic, sociology and ethics is also useful while discharging his duties and responsibilities. Selection is a negative function as it relates to elimination of unsuitable candidates. He used the word Administration for Management. For this, a fair system of remuneration payment wages and salaries needs to be introduced.
Neo- classical Management includes Human relation school and Behavioural Management School. Such tests include written test, trade test and psychological tests. For creating a team of efficient, capable and loyal employees, proper attention needs to be given to scientific selection of managers and other employees. Adam Smith brought about the revolution in financial thought and James Watt's steam engine provided cheaper power that revolutionized English commerce and industry. In addition, proper placement as per qualifications and qualities of employees is possible due to job analysis. The different approaches developed by various thinkers have led to a kind of confusion as to what management is, what management theory and science are, and how it should be studied? Using time study as the foundation, Taylor varied sizes and shapes of various hand tools used by workmen and came out with identifying the best tools to be used in an activity.